Asien — China’s National Defense in 2008

VII. The Sec­ond Artillery Force

The Sec­ond Artillery Force is a strate­gic force under the direct com­mand and con­trol of the CMC, and the core force of Chi­na for strate­gic deter­rence. It is main­ly respon­si­ble for deter­ring oth­er coun­tries from using nuclear weapons against Chi­na, and for con­duct­ing nuclear coun­ter­at­tacks and pre­ci­sion strikes with con­ven­tion­al missiles. 

The Sec­ond Artillery Force sticks to China’s pol­i­cy of no first use of nuclear weapons, imple­ments a self-defen­sive nuclear strat­e­gy, strict­ly fol­lows the orders of the CMC, and takes it as its fun­da­men­tal mis­sion the pro­tec­tion of Chi­na from any nuclear attack. In peace­time the nuclear mis­sile weapons of the Sec­ond Artillery Force are not aimed at any coun­try. But if Chi­na comes under a nuclear threat, the nuclear mis­sile force of the Sec­ond Artillery Force will go into a state of alert, and get ready for a nuclear coun­ter­at­tack to deter the ene­my from using nuclear weapons against Chi­na. If Chi­na comes under a nuclear attack, the nuclear mis­sile force of the Sec­ond Artillery Force will use nuclear mis­siles to launch a res­olute coun­ter­at­tack against the ene­my either inde­pen­dent­ly or togeth­er with the nuclear forces of oth­er ser­vices. The con­ven­tion­al mis­sile force of the Sec­ond Artillery Force is charged main­ly with the task of con­duct­ing medi­um- and long-range pre­ci­sion strikes against key strate­gic and oper­a­tional tar­gets of the enemy. 

His­to­ry of Devel­op­ment
The found­ing of the Sec­ond Artillery Force was a his­tor­i­cal choice the People’s Repub­lic of Chi­na was forced to make to deal with nuclear threats, break nuclear monop­oly and main­tain nation­al secu­ri­ty. Chi­na began to devel­op strate­gic mis­sile weapons in 1956, estab­lished research, train­ing and edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions for strate­gic mis­siles in 1957, cre­at­ed its first ground-to-ground mis­sile unit in 1959 and for­mal­ly found­ed the Sec­ond Artillery Force on July 1, 1966. In the lat­ter half of the 1970s, the Sec­ond Artillery Force set itself the objec­tive of build­ing a lean and effec­tive strate­gic mis­sile force with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics. In the 1990s it estab­lished its con­ven­tion­al mis­sile force, enter­ing a new stage marked by the coor­di­nat­ed devel­op­ment of its nuclear and con­ven­tion­al mis­sile forces. With the advent of the 21st cen­tu­ry it began to pro­mote leapfrog­ging devel­op­ment of infor­ma­tion­iza­tion. Through more than 40 years of devel­op­ment, the Sec­ond Artillery Force has grown into a lean and effec­tive strate­gic force with both nuclear and con­ven­tion­al mis­siles, capa­ble of both land-based strate­gic nuclear coun­ter­at­tacks and pre­ci­sion strikes with con­ven­tion­al missiles. 

Struc­ture and Orga­ni­za­tion
The oper­a­tional com­mand author­i­ty of the Sec­ond Artillery Force is high­ly cen­tral­ized. The chain of com­mand runs from the CMC, the Sec­ond Artillery Force and mis­sile bases to mis­sile brigades. The oper­a­tions of the Sec­ond Artillery Force must fol­low the orders of the CMC in the strictest and most pre­cise manner. 

The Sec­ond Artillery Force is main­ly com­posed of the nuclear mis­sile force, the con­ven­tion­al mis­sile force, the sup­port force, edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions, research insti­tutes and the head­quar­ter orga­ni­za­tions. The mis­sile force is orga­nized into mis­sile bases, mis­sile brigades and launch bat­tal­ions. The sup­port force is orga­nized into tech­ni­cal and spe­cial­ized sup­port units such as recon­nais­sance, intel­li­gence, sig­nal, ECM, engi­neer­ing, logis­tics and equip­ment units. The edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions include a com­mand col­lege, an engi­neer­ing col­lege and a school for NCOs. The research insti­tutes include equip­ment and engi­neer­ing institutes. 

Force Build­ing
Fol­low­ing the prin­ci­ple of build­ing a lean and effec­tive force and going with the tide of the devel­op­ment of mil­i­tary sci­ence and tech­nol­o­gy, the Sec­ond Artillery Force strives to raise the infor­ma­tion­iza­tion lev­el of its weapon­ry and equip­ment, ensure their safe­ty and reli­a­bil­i­ty, and enhance its capa­bil­i­ties in pro­tec­tion, rapid reac­tion, pen­e­tra­tion, dam­age and pre­ci­sion strike. After sev­er­al decades of devel­op­ment, it has cre­at­ed a weapon­ry and equip­ment sys­tem with both nuclear and con­ven­tion­al mis­siles, both sol­id-fueled and liq­uid-fueled mis­siles, dif­fer­ent launch­ing ranges and dif­fer­ent types of warheads. 

The Sec­ond Artillery Force is endeav­or­ing to form a com­plete sys­tem for war prepa­ra­tions, opti­mize its com­bat force struc­ture, and build a mis­sile oper­a­tional sys­tem suit­ed to infor­ma­tion­ized war­fare. Its nuclear and con­ven­tion­al mis­sile forces are kept at an appro­pri­ate lev­el of readi­ness. The Sec­ond Artillery Force is mak­ing steady head­way in the con­struc­tion of its bat­tle­field sys­tem, and makes exten­sive use of mod­ern mechan­i­cal equip­ment and con­struc­tion meth­ods. Each com­plet­ed project is up to stan­dard. The Sec­ond Artillery Force is also ded­i­cat­ed to logis­ti­cal reforms and inno­va­tions. It has cre­at­ed inte­grat­ed data bases for field sup­port and infor­ma­tion­ized man­age­ment plat­forms for logis­tic mate­ri­als, and improved sup­port sys­tems for the sur­vival of com­bat­ants in oper­a­tional posi­tions. As a result, its inte­grat­ed logis­ti­cal sup­port capa­bil­i­ties in case of actu­al com­bat have been marked­ly enhanced. To ensure the absolute safe­ty of nuclear weapons, the Sec­ond Artillery Force strict­ly imple­ments rules and reg­u­la­tions for nuclear safe­ty con­trol and accred­i­ta­tion of per­son­nel deal­ing with nuclear weapons, has adopt­ed reli­able tech­ni­cal means and meth­ods, strength­ens the safe man­age­ment of nuclear weapons in the process of stor­age, trans­porta­tion and train­ing, improves mech­a­nisms and meth­ods for emer­gency response to nuclear acci­dents, and has put in place spe­cial safe­ty mea­sures to avoid unau­tho­rized and acci­den­tal launches. 

In terms of train­ing, the Sec­ond Artillery Force takes spe­cial­ized skills as the foun­da­tion, focus­es on offi­cers and core per­son­nel, cen­ters its atten­tion on sys­tems inte­gra­tion and aims at improv­ing over­all oper­a­tional capa­bil­i­ties. It active­ly con­ducts spe­cial­ized train­ing, inte­grat­ed train­ing and oper­a­tional train­ing exer­cis­es. Spe­cial­ized train­ing main­ly involves the study of basic and spe­cial­ized mis­sile the­o­ries, and the train­ing in oper­at­ing skills of weapons and equip­ment. Inte­grat­ed train­ing main­ly con­sists of whole-process coor­di­nat­ed train­ing of all ele­ments with­in a com­bat for­ma­tion. Oper­a­tional train­ing exer­cis­es refer to com­pre­hen­sive train­ing and exer­cis­es by mis­sile brigades and sup­port units in con­di­tions sim­i­lar to actu­al com­bat. The Sec­ond Artillery Force has adopt­ed a rat­ing sys­tem for unit train­ing and an accred­i­ta­tion sys­tem for per­son­nel at crit­i­cal posts. It enhances on-base, sim­u­lat­ed, web-based and real­is­tic train­ing, explores the char­ac­ter­is­tics and laws of train­ing in com­plex elec­tro­mag­net­ic envi­ron­ments and inte­grat­ed train­ing of mis­sile bases, and is con­duct­ing R&D of a new gen­er­a­tion of web-based sim­u­lat­ed train­ing sys­tems. Sig­nif­i­cant progress has been made in build­ing the “Infor­ma­tion­ized Blue Force” and bat­tle laboratories. 

The Sec­ond Artillery Force places per­son­nel train­ing in a strate­gic posi­tion, and gives it high pri­or­i­ty. It is work­ing to imple­ment the Shen­jian Project for Per­son­nel Train­ing, and cre­ate a three-tiered team of first-rate tech­ni­cal per­son­nel. As a result, a con­tin­gent of tal­ent­ed peo­ple has tak­en shape, whose main body is com­posed of aca­d­e­mi­cians of the Chi­nese Acad­e­my of Engi­neer­ing, mis­sile spe­cial­ists, com­mand­ing offi­cers, and skilled oper­a­tors and technicians. 

Source:
Infor­ma­tion Office of the State Coun­cil of the People’s Repub­lic of China 

Team GlobDef

Team GlobDef

Seit 2001 ist GlobalDefence.net im Internet unterwegs, um mit eigenen Analysen, interessanten Kooperationen und umfassenden Informationen für einen spannenden Überblick der Weltlage zu sorgen. GlobalDefenc.net war dabei die erste deutschsprachige Internetseite, die mit dem Schwerpunkt Sicherheitspolitik außerhalb von Hochschulen oder Instituten aufgetreten ist.

Alle Beiträge ansehen von Team GlobDef →