Asien — China’s National Defense in 2008

III. Reform and Devel­op­ment of the PLA

In the great his­tor­i­cal course of China’s reform and open­ing-up over the past three decades, the PLA has invari­ably tak­en mod­ern­iza­tion as its cen­tral task, con­tin­u­ous­ly engaged in reform and inno­va­tion, com­pre­hen­sive­ly advanced rev­o­lu­tion­iza­tion, mod­ern­iza­tion and reg­u­lar­iza­tion, and made impor­tant con­tri­bu­tions to safe­guard­ing nation­al sov­er­eign­ty and secu­ri­ty, and main­tain­ing world peace. In recent years, the PLA has accel­er­at­ed RMA with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics, and pushed for­ward its mil­i­tary, polit­i­cal, logis­ti­cal and equip­ment work in a coor­di­nat­ed way, in an effort to achieve sound and rapid development. 

Thir­ty Years of Reform and Devel­op­ment
From the late 1970s and into the 1980s, the PLA set out on the road of build­ing a stream­lined mil­i­tary with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics. Accord­ing to the sci­en­tif­ic judg­ment that peace and devel­op­ment had become the prin­ci­pal themes of the times, it made a strate­gic shift in its guid­ing prin­ci­ple for mil­i­tary build­ing from prepa­ra­tions for “an ear­ly, large-scale and nuclear war” to peace­time con­struc­tion, and advanced its mod­ern­iza­tion step by step in a well-planned way under the pre­con­di­tion that such efforts should be both sub­or­di­nat­ed to and in the ser­vice of the country’s over­all devel­op­ment. It set the gen­er­al goal of build­ing a pow­er­ful mil­i­tary, rev­o­lu­tion­ary in nature, mod­ern­ized and reg­u­lar­ized, and blazed a trail for build­ing a lean mil­i­tary with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics. It under­went sig­nif­i­cant adjust­ment and reform, and stream­lined the size of its armed forces by a mil­lion troops, there­by tak­ing an impor­tant step for­ward in mak­ing itself stream­lined, com­bined and efficient. 

Enter­ing the 1990s, the PLA began to vig­or­ous­ly pro­mote RMA with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics. It estab­lished the mil­i­tary strate­gic guide­line of active defense for the new era, based on win­ning local wars in con­di­tions of mod­ern tech­nol­o­gy, par­tic­u­lar­ly high tech­nol­o­gy. It began to adopt a strat­e­gy of strength­en­ing the mil­i­tary by means of sci­ence and tech­nol­o­gy, and a three-step devel­op­ment strat­e­gy in mod­ern­iz­ing nation­al defense and the armed forces, and pro­mot­ed the coor­di­nat­ed devel­op­ment of nation­al defense and econ­o­my. Regard­ing RMA with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics as the only way to mod­ern­ize the mil­i­tary, it put for­ward the strate­gic goal of build­ing an infor­ma­tion­ized mil­i­tary and win­ning infor­ma­tion­ized wars. Dri­ven by prepa­ra­tions for mil­i­tary strug­gle, it accel­er­at­ed the devel­op­ment of weapon­ry and equip­ment, stepped up the devel­op­ment of the arms and ser­vices of the armed forces, as well as forces for emer­gency mobile oper­a­tions, opti­mized its sys­tem and struc­ture, and reduced the num­ber of per­son­nel by 700,000. As a result, its capa­bil­i­ty of defen­sive oper­a­tions increased remarkably. 

At the new stage in the new cen­tu­ry, the PLA has been striv­ing to cre­ate a new sit­u­a­tion in its mod­ern­iza­tion dri­ve at a new his­tor­i­cal start­ing point. With the Sci­en­tif­ic Out­look on Devel­op­ment as an impor­tant guid­ing prin­ci­ple for nation­al defense and armed forces build­ing, it has act­ed in accor­dance with the strate­gic thought of bal­anc­ing eco­nom­ic and nation­al defense devel­op­ment and inte­grat­ing efforts to enrich the coun­try and strength­en the mil­i­tary. It has been ded­i­cat­ed to per­form­ing its new his­tor­i­cal mis­sions and improv­ing its capa­bil­i­ties to counter var­i­ous secu­ri­ty threats and accom­plish diver­si­fied mil­i­tary tasks. It has accel­er­at­ed the com­pos­ite devel­op­ment of mech­a­niza­tion and infor­ma­tion­iza­tion, vig­or­ous­ly con­ducts mil­i­tary train­ing in con­di­tions of infor­ma­tion­iza­tion, and boosts inno­va­tion in mil­i­tary the­o­ry, tech­nol­o­gy, orga­ni­za­tion and man­age­ment, to con­tin­u­ous­ly increase the core mil­i­tary capa­bil­i­ty of win­ning local wars in con­di­tions of infor­ma­tion­iza­tion and the capa­bil­i­ty of con­duct­ing MOOTW

Pro­mot­ing the Improve­ment of Mil­i­tary Train­ing
Regard­ing mil­i­tary train­ing as the basic approach to fur­ther­ing the com­pre­hen­sive devel­op­ment of the mil­i­tary and rais­ing com­bat effec­tive­ness, the PLA is work­ing to reform train­ing pro­grams, meth­ods, man­age­ment and sup­port, and cre­ate a sci­en­tif­ic sys­tem for mil­i­tary train­ing in con­di­tions of informationization. 

Increas­ing train­ing tasks. The PLA is inten­si­fy­ing strate­gic- and oper­a­tional-lev­el com­mand post train­ing and troop train­ing in con­di­tions of infor­ma­tion­iza­tion, hold­ing trans-region­al eval­u­a­tion exer­cis­es with oppos­ing play­ers, con­duct­ing whole-unit night train­ing and car­ry­ing out inte­grat­ed exer­cis­es for logis­ti­cal and equip­ment sup­port. More­over, it is attach­ing more impor­tance to MOOTW train­ing in counter-ter­ror­ism, sta­bil­i­ty main­te­nance, emer­gency response, peace­keep­ing, emer­gency res­cue and dis­as­ter relief. 

Deep­en­ing train­ing reform. The PLA is cre­at­ing a task list for mil­i­tary train­ing in con­di­tions of infor­ma­tion­iza­tion, devel­op­ing a new edi­tion of the Out­line for Mil­i­tary Train­ing and Eval­u­a­tion, and pro­mot­ing the appli­ca­tion of inno­va­tions made in train­ing reform. It is also rein­forc­ing the joint train­ing of the ser­vices and arms, strength­en­ing func­tion­al train­ing, giv­ing promi­nence to com­mand and coor­di­nate train­ing and the stud­ies of ways of fight­ing, and improv­ing train­ing in region­al coop­er­a­tion. It is improv­ing on-base train­ing and sim­u­lat­ed train­ing, pro­mot­ing web-based train­ing, and con­duct­ing train­ing with oppos­ing play­ers. It is also reform­ing train­ing eval­u­a­tion mech­a­nisms, mak­ing train­ing stan­dards stricter, and enforc­ing metic­u­lous man­age­ment of the whole process and all aspects of mil­i­tary training. 

Con­duct­ing train­ing in com­plex elec­tro­mag­net­ic envi­ron­ments. The PLA is spread­ing basic knowl­edge of elec­tro­mag­net­ic-spec­trum and bat­tle­field-elec­tro­mag­net­ic envi­ron­ments, learn­ing and mas­ter­ing basic the­o­ries of infor­ma­tion war­fare, par­tic­u­lar­ly elec­tron­ic war­fare. It is enhanc­ing train­ing on how to oper­ate and use infor­ma­tion­ized weapon­ry and equip­ment, and com­mand infor­ma­tion sys­tems. It is work­ing on the infor­ma­tion­iz­ing of com­bined tac­ti­cal train­ing bases, and hold­ing exer­cis­es in com­plex elec­tro­mag­net­ic environments. 

Strength­en­ing Ide­o­log­i­cal and Polit­i­cal Work
The PLA insists on putting ide­o­log­i­cal and polit­i­cal work first, and push­ing for­ward the inno­v­a­tive devel­op­ment of ide­o­log­i­cal and polit­i­cal work, to ensure the Party’s absolute lead­er­ship over the armed forces, the sci­en­tif­ic devel­op­ment of the mil­i­tary, the all-round devel­op­ment of the offi­cers and men, the increase of com­bat capa­bil­i­ties and the effec­tive ful­fill­ment of his­tor­i­cal missions. 

In Jan­u­ary 2007 the Gen­er­al Polit­i­cal Depart­ment of the PLA issued the Guide­line for the Ide­o­log­i­cal and Polit­i­cal Edu­ca­tion of the Chi­nese People’s Lib­er­a­tion Army (Tri­al). This guide­line spells out clear­ly that such edu­ca­tion refers to the work by the Com­mu­nist Par­ty of Chi­na (CPC) to arm the mil­i­tary with polit­i­cal the­o­ries and pro­vide it with ide­o­log­i­cal guid­ance; sci­en­tif­i­cal­ly reg­u­lates such edu­ca­tion for all kinds of PLA forces and per­son­nel; and fur­ther strength­ens the devel­op­ment of rules and reg­u­la­tions for such edu­ca­tion. Pur­suant to the guide­line, units whose ratios of polit­i­cal edu­ca­tion to mil­i­tary train­ing are 3 to 7 and 2 to 8 should devote 54 and 42 work­days, respec­tive­ly, to polit­i­cal edu­ca­tion each year. The PLA per­sists in arm­ing its offi­cers and men with the the­o­ry of social­ism with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics, edu­cates them in its his­tor­i­cal mis­sions, ideals, beliefs, fight­ing spir­it and the social­ist con­cept of hon­or and dis­grace, and car­ries for­ward the fine tra­di­tions of obey­ing the Party’s orders, serv­ing the peo­ple, and fight­ing brave­ly and skill­ful­ly. The PLA’s ide­o­log­i­cal and polit­i­cal edu­ca­tion adheres to six prin­ci­ples: to be guid­ed by sci­en­tif­ic the­o­ries, to put the peo­ple first, to focus on the cen­tral task and serve the over­all inter­ests, to aim at con­crete results, to edu­cate through prac­ti­cal activ­i­ties, and to encour­age inno­va­tion and devel­op­ment. Fol­low­ing these prin­ci­ples, the PLA has flex­i­bly applied and inno­v­a­tive­ly devel­oped edu­ca­tion­al forms and means, improved radio, tele­vi­sion and net­work edu­ca­tion­al facil­i­ties, and built mil­i­tary his­to­ry muse­ums, cul­tur­al cen­ters, “homes of polit­i­cal instruc­tors,” study rooms, and com­pa­ny clubs and hon­ors exhibitions. 

In April 2008 the Cen­tral Mil­i­tary Com­mis­sion (CMC) approved the Reg­u­la­tions of the Chi­nese People’s Lib­er­a­tion Army on the Work of Servicemen’s Com­mit­tees, which was joint­ly issued by the Head­quar­ters of the Gen­er­al Staff, the Gen­er­al Polit­i­cal Depart­ment, the Gen­er­al Logis­tics Depart­ment and the Gen­er­al Arma­ment Depart­ment. The doc­u­ment has insti­tu­tion­al­ized polit­i­cal democ­ra­cy, eco­nom­ic democ­ra­cy and mil­i­tary democ­ra­cy for grass-roots units in the new sit­u­a­tion. The servicemen’s com­mit­tee is an orga­ni­za­tion through which the grass-roots mil­i­tary units prac­tice democ­ra­cy in polit­i­cal, eco­nom­ic and mil­i­tary affairs and through which the ser­vice­men exer­cise their demo­c­ra­t­ic rights and car­ry out mass activ­i­ties. It exer­cis­es the fol­low­ing func­tions too: to advise on com­bat readi­ness train­ing, edu­ca­tion and man­age­ment, logis­ti­cal sup­port, and weapon­ry and equip­ment man­age­ment of its own unit; to make rec­om­men­da­tions on issues con­cern­ing the imme­di­ate inter­ests of offi­cers and men, such as the selec­tion and pro­mo­tion of non-com­mis­sioned offi­cers (NCOs), selec­tion of qual­i­fied enlist­ed men to enter mil­i­tary edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions either through exam­i­na­tions or direct­ly, selec­tion of enlist­ed men for tech­ni­cal train­ing, and selec­tion of ser­vice­men for com­men­da­tions and rewards; to super­vise offi­cers and men on the per­for­mance of their duties and obser­va­tion of law and dis­ci­pline; and to pro­tect the col­lec­tive inter­ests of the unit, and the legit­i­mate rights and inter­ests of offi­cers and men. Con­sist­ing of five to sev­en mem­bers cho­sen by the servicemen’s assem­bly through elec­tion by secret bal­lot, the servicemen’s com­mit­tee works under the lead­er­ship of the unit Par­ty branch (or grass-roots Par­ty com­mit­tee) and the guid­ance of the unit commanders. 

Enhanc­ing the Cost-Effec­tive­ness of Logis­ti­cal Sup­port
The PLA vig­or­ous­ly pro­motes inte­gra­tion in logis­ti­cal sup­port sys­tem, out­sourc­ing in logis­ti­cal sup­port method, infor­ma­tion­iza­tion in logis­ti­cal sup­port means, and sci­en­tif­ic approach in logis­ti­cal sup­port man­age­ment, to build a mod­ern logis­tics sys­tem. In Decem­ber 2007 the CMC pro­mul­gat­ed the Out­line for Build­ing a Mod­ern Logis­tics Sys­tem, spec­i­fy­ing the guide­lines, prin­ci­ples, objec­tives and tasks for the devel­op­ment of mod­ern logistics. 

Deep­en­ing logis­tics reform. The PLA per­sists in pro­mot­ing reforms in joint logis­tics. In April 2007 the Jinan The­ater for­mal­ly adopt­ed the joint logis­tics sys­tem based on the inte­gra­tion of tri-ser­vice logis­ti­cal sup­port. To speed up the out­sourc­ing process, the PLA out­sources the com­mer­cial and hous­ing ser­vices of com­bat units sta­tioned in large- and medi­um-sized cities, gen­er­al-pur­pose mate­ri­als stor­age, cap­i­tal con­struc­tion, logis­ti­cal equip­ment pro­duc­tion and logis­ti­cal tech­ni­cal ser­vices. To enhance bud­get­ing reforms, it pro­motes the cre­ation of data­bas­es for bud­get items, strength­ens the invest­ment assess­ment and eval­u­a­tion of major projects, sum­ma­rizes and pop­u­lar­izes such prac­tices as the inte­gra­tion of assets man­age­ment with bud­get man­age­ment and the con­trol of expens­es con­cern­ing admin­is­tra­tive con­sum­ables, and grad­u­al­ly adopts the prac­tice of using work-relat­ed expen­di­ture cards for pay­ment and account set­tle­ment. It enlarges the scope of cen­tral­ized pro­cure­ment, increas­es the pro­por­tion of pro­cure­ment through bid­ding, and extends cen­tral­ized pro­cure­ment to non-com­bat units. 

Upgrad­ing logis­ti­cal sup­port. The PLA has sub­stan­tial­ly increased fund­ing for edu­ca­tion and train­ing, polit­i­cal work, health care, water and elec­tric­i­ty sup­plies, heat­ing, bar­racks main­te­nance, etc. It has increased allowances for avi­a­tors, sailors and astro­nauts. It has increased post allowances for offi­cers in grass-roots units and duty allowances for enlist­ed men. It has raised servicemen’s injury and death insur­ance and board expens­es. It has set stan­dards for the sub­si­dies and fees for small, scat­tered, dis­tant units and units direct­ly under the head­quar­ters. In August 2007 all PLA troops began to replace their old uni­forms with the 07 series. 

Reg­u­lat­ing logis­tics man­age­ment. To step up stan­dard­iza­tion, the PLA is redou­bling its efforts in the stan­dard­ized pro­vi­sion of main­te­nance funds and cen­tral­ly allo­cat­ed sup­plies, reg­u­lat­ing the man­age­ment of con­struc­tion-relat­ed sup­plies, and cre­at­ing step by step a sys­tem of logis­ti­cal sup­port stan­dards and reg­u­la­tions cov­er­ing sup­ply, con­sump­tion and man­age­ment. It strength­ens finan­cial man­age­ment, spends accord­ing to stan­dards and with­in its bud­get, and car­ries out con­struc­tion accord­ing to its finan­cial strength. It pays close atten­tion to the safe man­age­ment of drink­ing water, food, med­ical care, med­i­cine, petro­le­um, oils and lubri­cants, trans­porta­tion and dan­ger­ous arti­cles. It is improv­ing the mech­a­nism to pre­vent and con­trol pub­lic health haz­ards; stan­dard­iz­ing the man­age­ment of mil­i­tary vehi­cles; con­duct­ing a spe­cial review of hous­ing for active offi­cers at and above the corps lev­el; impos­ing strict man­age­ment on mil­i­tary hous­ing and the lease of unoc­cu­pied real estate; and improv­ing the sys­tem for the employ­ment of civil­ians. In Jan­u­ary 2007 the CMC pro­mul­gat­ed the new­ly revised Audit Reg­u­la­tions of the Chi­nese People’s Lib­er­a­tion Army. The PLA has launched an in-depth move­ment to con­serve ener­gy and resources by encour­ag­ing con­ser­va­tion-mind­ed sup­ply and con­sump­tion. It pro­tects the eco­log­i­cal envi­ron­ment of mil­i­tary areas by ini­ti­at­ing a grass­land con­ser­va­tion project, a pilot project for pre­vent­ing and alle­vi­at­ing sand storms affect­ing coastal mil­i­tary facil­i­ties, and efforts to har­ness pol­lu­tion by mil­i­tary units sta­tioned in the area known as the Bohai Sea rim. 

Boost­ing Inte­grat­ed Equip­ment Sup­port
Meet­ing the require­ments of tri-ser­vice inte­gra­tion, joint oper­a­tions, sys­tems build­ing and sys­tems inte­gra­tion, the PLA is con­tin­u­al­ly improv­ing its weapon­ry and equip­ment sys­tem and ele­vat­ing inte­grat­ed equip­ment support. 

Accel­er­at­ing the build­ing of a mod­ern weapon­ry and equip­ment sys­tem with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics. Per­sist­ing in self-reliance and inde­pen­dent inno­va­tion, the PLA gives pri­or­i­ty to devel­op­ing infor­ma­tion­ized weapons and equip­ment which can meet the require­ments of inte­grat­ed joint oper­a­tions, and car­ries out pri­or­i­tized and selec­tive retro­fitting and upgrad­ing of exist­ing equip­ment. It has basi­cal­ly estab­lished an army equip­ment sys­tem fea­tur­ing high mobil­i­ty and three-dimen­sion­al assault, a naval equip­ment sys­tem with inte­grat­ed sea-air capa­bil­i­ties for off­shore defen­sive oper­a­tions, an air force equip­ment sys­tem with inte­grat­ed air-land capa­bil­i­ties for both offen­sive and defen­sive oper­a­tions, a sur­face-to-sur­face mis­sile equip­ment sys­tem for the Sec­ond Artillery Force com­pris­ing both nuclear and con­ven­tion­al mis­siles with dif­fer­ent ranges, and an elec­tron­ic infor­ma­tion equip­ment sys­tem fea­tur­ing sys­tems inte­gra­tion and joint development. 

Rais­ing the lev­el of equip­ment man­age­ment and the capa­bil­i­ty of new equip­ment main­te­nance and sup­port. The PLA is inten­si­fy­ing the sci­en­tif­ic, insti­tu­tion­al­ized and reg­u­lar man­age­ment of equip­ment, and has adopt­ed a sys­tem of account­abil­i­ty to improve weapon and equip­ment readi­ness. Empha­sis is laid on cul­ti­vat­ing the capa­bil­i­ty of equip­ment main­te­nance and sup­port, the tech­niques and means of which are being grad­u­al­ly shift­ed from being applic­a­ble to equip­ment of the first and sec­ond gen­er­a­tions to being applic­a­ble to the sec­ond and third gen­er­a­tions. Over­haul and emer­gency sup­port capa­bil­i­ties have been basi­cal­ly devel­oped for the main equip­ment. The PLA has aug­ment­ed equip­ment sup­port forces and formed a pre­lim­i­nary sys­tem of such forces, with reg­u­lar forces as the back­bone, reserve forces as the rein­force­ment, and back­up forces as the sup­ple­ment. Equip­ment man­u­fac­tur­ing units have been ordered to rehearse the mobi­liza­tion of tech­ni­cal sup­port forces, and approach­es to civ­il-mil­i­tary inte­grat­ed sup­port have been explored. 

Adjust­ing and reform­ing the equip­ment pro­cure­ment sys­tem. In the past two years, the PLA has fur­ther expand­ed the scope of com­pet­i­tive, cen­tral­ized and inte­grat­ed pro­cure­ment. In line with the demand to sep­a­rate and bal­ance plan­ning, con­tract ful­fill­ment, con­tract super­vi­sion and con­tract audit­ing, the PLA has adjust­ed and improved the orga­ni­za­tion­al sys­tem for equip­ment pro­cure­ment, and reformed the sys­tem of res­i­dent mil­i­tary rep­re­sen­ta­tives in factories. 

Speed­ing up Infor­ma­tion­iza­tion
Active­ly cop­ing with the chal­lenges pre­sent­ed by the world­wide RMA, the PLA exten­sive­ly applies infor­ma­tion tech­nol­o­gy, devel­ops and uti­lizes infor­ma­tion resources in var­i­ous fields of mil­i­tary build­ing, and strives to take a road of mil­i­tary infor­ma­tion­iza­tion with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics which high­lights the lead­ing role of infor­ma­tion, pur­sues com­pos­ite devel­op­ment, pro­motes inde­pen­dent inno­va­tion and facil­i­tates transformation. 

Start­ing with com­mand automa­tion in the 1970s, the PLA has shift­ed the focus of infor­ma­tion­iza­tion from spe­cif­ic areas to trans-area sys­tems inte­gra­tion, and is on the whole at the ini­tial stage of com­pre­hen­sive devel­op­ment. Cur­rent­ly, aim­ing at inte­gra­tion, the PLA is per­sist­ing in com­bin­ing break­throughs in key sec­tors with com­pre­hen­sive devel­op­ment, tech­no­log­i­cal inno­va­tion with struc­tur­al reform, and the devel­op­ment and build­ing of new sys­tems with the mod­i­fi­ca­tion of exist­ing ones to tap their poten­tials; enhanc­ing sys­tems inte­gra­tion; step­ping up efforts to devel­op and uti­lize infor­ma­tion resources; and grad­u­al­ly devel­op­ing and improv­ing the capa­bil­i­ty of fight­ing based on infor­ma­tion systems. 

Achieve­ments have been made in the build­ing of mil­i­tary infor­ma­tion sys­tems, with the pri­or­i­ty being giv­en to com­mand infor­ma­tion sys­tems. The inte­grat­ed mil­i­tary infor­ma­tion net­work came into oper­a­tion in 2006, result­ing in the fur­ther improve­ment of the infor­ma­tion infra­struc­ture, basic infor­ma­tion sup­port and infor­ma­tion secu­ri­ty assur­ance. Progress has been made in the build­ing of com­mand and con­trol sys­tems for inte­grat­ed joint oper­a­tions, sig­nif­i­cant­ly enhanc­ing the capa­bil­i­ty of bat­tle­field infor­ma­tion sup­port. IT-based train­ing meth­ods have under­gone con­sid­er­able devel­op­ment; sur­vey­ing and map­ping, nav­i­ga­tion, weath­er fore­cast­ing, hydro­log­i­cal obser­va­tion and space envi­ron­ment sup­port sys­tems have been fur­ther opti­mized; a num­ber of infor­ma­tion sys­tems for logis­ti­cal and equip­ment sup­port have been suc­cess­ful­ly devel­oped and deployed; and full-scale efforts in build­ing “dig­i­tal cam­pus­es” have begun in PLA edu­ca­tion­al institutions. 

Main bat­tle weapon sys­tems are being grad­u­al­ly infor­ma­tion­ized. The focus is to increase the capa­bil­i­ty of the main bat­tle weapon sys­tems in the areas of rapid detec­tion, tar­get loca­tion, friend-or-foe iden­ti­fi­ca­tion and pre­ci­sion strikes. Some tanks, artillery pieces, ships and air­craft in active ser­vice have been infor­ma­tion­ized, new types of high­ly infor­ma­tion­ized com­bat plat­forms have been suc­cess­ful­ly devel­oped, and the pro­por­tion and num­ber of pre­ci­sion-guid­ed muni­tions are on the rise. 

The con­di­tions for infor­ma­tion­iza­tion have been improved. A lead­er­ship, man­age­ment and con­sul­ta­tion sys­tem for infor­ma­tion­iza­tion has been basi­cal­ly set up, and the cen­tral­ized and uni­fied lead­er­ship for infor­ma­tion­iza­tion has been strength­ened. The­o­ret­i­cal explo­rations and stud­ies of key prac­ti­cal issues relat­ed to infor­ma­tion­iza­tion have been con­tin­u­ous­ly inten­si­fied, medi­um- and long-term plans and guid­ance for infor­ma­tion­iza­tion of the mil­i­tary for­mu­lat­ed and pro­mul­gat­ed, tech­ni­cal stan­dards revised and refined, and insti­tu­tion­al edu­ca­tion and per­son­nel train­ing cater­ing to the require­ments of infor­ma­tion­iza­tion strengthened. 

Step­ping up Per­son­nel Train­ing
The PLA is fur­ther imple­ment­ing the strate­gic project for tal­ent­ed peo­ple, improv­ing its train­ing sys­tem and lay­ing stress on the train­ing of com­mand­ing offi­cers for joint oper­a­tions and high-lev­el tech­ni­cal experts in an effort to cul­ti­vate a large con­tin­gent of new-type and high-cal­iber mil­i­tary personnel. 

In April 2008, the CMC issued Opin­ions on Strength­en­ing and Improv­ing the Offi­cers Train­ing Work of the Armed Forces, explic­it­ly requir­ing the estab­lish­ment and improve­ment of the ser­vice-long and all-per­son­nel train­ing sys­tem, which takes lev­el-by-lev­el train­ing as the back­bone and on-the-job train­ing as the sup­ple­ment, and match­es train­ing with assign­ment. A sit­u­a­tion is to be cre­at­ed in which insti­tu­tion­al edu­ca­tion is linked with train­ing in units, edu­ca­tion in mil­i­tary edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions is car­ried on in par­al­lel with edu­ca­tion through reg­u­lar insti­tu­tions of high­er learn­ing, and domes­tic train­ing is com­bined with over­seas training. 

Strength­en­ing the train­ing of com­mand­ing offi­cers for joint oper­a­tions. Var­i­ous mea­sures are being tak­en to step up efforts to train com­mand­ing offi­cers for joint oper­a­tions, such as insti­tu­tion­al edu­ca­tion, on-the-job study and rota­tion of posts. Incor­po­rat­ing joint oper­a­tions into the whole train­ing process, the PLA care­ful­ly dis­tin­guish­es between the train­ing tasks of edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions of dif­fer­ent lev­els and types, and cou­ples insti­tu­tion­al edu­ca­tion with train­ing in units, so as to estab­lish a sys­tem for train­ing joint oper­a­tions com­mand­ing offi­cers which empha­sizes both insti­tu­tion­al edu­ca­tion and prac­tice in units. The PLA has launched the Key Projects of Mil­i­tary Edu­ca­tion­al Insti­tu­tions and made step-by-step progress in these projects. 

Select­ing and train­ing offi­cer can­di­dates. In Octo­ber 2007 the CMC approved and the four gen­er­al headquarters/departments joint­ly pro­mul­gat­ed the Reg­u­la­tions of the Chi­nese People’s Lib­er­a­tion Army on the Admis­sion Work of Edu­ca­tion­al Insti­tu­tions, reg­u­lat­ing the admis­sion of high-school grad­u­ates and enlist­ed men into mil­i­tary edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions. At the end of 2007 the Min­istry of Edu­ca­tion and the Gen­er­al Polit­i­cal Depart­ment of the PLA co-spon­sored a con­fer­ence on the issue of train­ing PLA offi­cers via reg­u­lar insti­tu­tions of high­er learn­ing. At present, there are 117 col­leges and uni­ver­si­ties with defense stu­dents. The PLA has select­ed near­ly 1,000 key mid­dle schools in the var­i­ous provinces and munic­i­pal­i­ties as the main sources of defense students. 

Cre­at­ing a favor­able envi­ron­ment for cul­ti­vat­ing tal­ent­ed peo­ple. The PLA has estab­lished and improved a mech­a­nism for reward­ing and inspir­ing tal­ent­ed peo­ple, issu­ing high rewards to out­stand­ing com­mand­ing offi­cers, staff offi­cers and tech­ni­cal experts, as well as teams which have made great con­tri­bu­tions in sci­en­tif­ic and tech­no­log­i­cal inno­va­tion. Since 2007 addi­tion­al funds amount­ing to RMB 700 mil­lion have been devot­ed to tal­ent cul­ti­va­tion. In July 2007 the CMC pro­mul­gat­ed the Pro­vi­sions of the Armed Forces on Attract­ing and Retain­ing High-lev­el Spe­cial­ized Tech­ni­cal Per­son­nel, spec­i­fy­ing effec­tive mea­sures to attract and retain par­tic­u­lar­ly lead­ing sci­en­tists, first-rate per­son­nel in spe­cif­ic dis­ci­plines and tech­ni­cal experts. In March 2008 the Guide­line of the Chi­nese People’s Lib­er­a­tion Army for the Eval­u­a­tion of Com­mand­ing Offi­cers, the Imple­men­ta­tion Mea­sures of the Chi­nese People’s Lib­er­a­tion Army on the Eval­u­a­tion of Com­mand­ing Offi­cers and the Stan­dards of the Chi­nese People’s Lib­er­a­tion Army for the Eval­u­a­tion of Com­mand­ing Offi­cers (Tri­al) were pub­lished, which marked the ini­tial estab­lish­ment of a sys­tem for the eval­u­a­tion of com­mand­ing offi­cers in accor­dance with the require­ments of sci­en­tif­ic development. 

Per­sist­ing in Gov­ern­ing the Forces in Accor­dance with the Law
The PLA per­sists in tak­ing it as the basic require­ment of the reg­u­lar­iza­tion dri­ve to gov­ern the armed forces in accor­dance with the law, and empha­sizes sci­en­tif­ic leg­is­la­tion and strict law enforce­ment to enhance its lev­el of regularization. 

In the past 30 years of reform and open­ing-up the mil­i­tary leg­isla­tive sys­tem has been improved step by step, and remark­able achieve­ments have been made in mil­i­tary leg­is­la­tion. In 1988 the CMC set up a legal organ, and the gen­er­al headquarters/departments, Navy, Air Force, Sec­ond Artillery Force and mil­i­tary area com­mands des­ig­nat­ed spe­cif­ic depart­ments to be in charge of legal affairs. In 1997 the Law of the People’s Repub­lic of Chi­na on Nation­al Defense was pro­mul­gat­ed, spec­i­fy­ing that the CMC enacts mil­i­tary reg­u­la­tions in accor­dance with the Con­sti­tu­tion and rel­e­vant laws. The Law of the People’s Repub­lic of Chi­na on Leg­is­la­tion pro­mul­gat­ed in 2000 fur­ther defined the leg­isla­tive author­i­ty of the CMC, gen­er­al headquarters/departments, Navy, Air Force, Sec­ond Artillery Force, and mil­i­tary area com­mands. By Octo­ber 2008, the Nation­al People’s Con­gress (NPC) and its Stand­ing Com­mit­tee had made 15 laws and law-relat­ed deci­sions con­cern­ing nation­al defense and armed forces build­ing; the State Coun­cil and the CMC had joint­ly for­mu­lat­ed 93 mil­i­tary admin­is­tra­tive reg­u­la­tions; the CMC had for­mu­lat­ed 214 mil­i­tary reg­u­la­tions; and the gen­er­al headquarters/departments, Navy, Air Force, Sec­ond Artillery Force, mil­i­tary area com­mands and People’s Armed Police Force (PAPF) had enact­ed more than 3,000 mil­i­tary rules and reg­u­la­tions. In June 2007 and Decem­ber 2008, the NPC Stand­ing Com­mit­tee rat­i­fied respec­tive­ly the Treaty on the Tem­po­rary Stay of the Army of One Par­ty in the Ter­ri­to­ry of the Oth­er Par­ty dur­ing the Peri­od of Joint Mil­i­tary Exer­cis­es between the People’s Repub­lic of Chi­na and the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion and the Agree­ment among the Mem­ber States of the Shang­hai Coop­er­a­tion Orga­ni­za­tion on Con­duct­ing Joint Mil­i­tary Exercises. 

The PLA per­sists in gov­ern­ing the forces strict­ly and in accor­dance with the law, and improves the mech­a­nism for mak­ing deci­sions and pro­vid­ing guid­ance in accor­dance with the law in an effort to insti­tu­tion­al­ize and reg­u­lar­ize mil­i­tary, polit­i­cal, logis­ti­cal and equip­ment work. It prac­tices sci­en­tif­ic man­age­ment, strict­ly enforces rules and reg­u­la­tions, and incor­po­rates the cul­ti­va­tion of prop­er style and strict dis­ci­pline into the rou­tine edu­ca­tion and admin­is­tra­tion of the forces. Through strict train­ing and dai­ly cul­ti­va­tion, the PLA aims to build a force with a refined mil­i­tary pos­ture, strict dis­ci­pline and fine work style. 

Tak­ing dis­sem­i­nat­ing knowl­edge of the law as an impor­tant part of strength­en­ing all-round build­ing, the PLA places empha­sis on dis­sem­i­nat­ing legal knowl­edge, and is step­ping up efforts to pop­u­lar­ize knowl­edge of the law with a clear aim and in an active and effec­tive way. Units with secu­ri­ty tasks in the 2008 Bei­jing Olympics and Par­a­lympics orga­nized offi­cers and men to study rel­e­vant laws and reg­u­la­tions to enhance their legal aware­ness and their capa­bil­i­ty of deal­ing with emer­gen­cies in accor­dance with the law. Offi­cers and men of units tasked with inter­na­tion­al peace­keep­ing mis­sions and of naval ships mak­ing port calls have been orga­nized to study the Unit­ed Nations Char­ter, the Unit­ed Nations Con­ven­tion on the Law of the Sea, etc. In Novem­ber 2007 the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment estab­lished the Nation­al Com­mit­tee for Inter­na­tion­al Human­i­tar­i­an Law, under the arrange­ment and coor­di­na­tion of which rel­e­vant mil­i­tary agen­cies dis­sem­i­nate knowl­edge of and imple­ment inter­na­tion­al human­i­tar­i­an law with­in the PLA

Infor­ma­tion Office of the State Coun­cil of the People’s Repub­lic of China 

Team GlobDef

Team GlobDef

Seit 2001 ist im Internet unterwegs, um mit eigenen Analysen, interessanten Kooperationen und umfassenden Informationen für einen spannenden Überblick der Weltlage zu sorgen. war dabei die erste deutschsprachige Internetseite, die mit dem Schwerpunkt Sicherheitspolitik außerhalb von Hochschulen oder Instituten aufgetreten ist.

Alle Beiträge ansehen von Team GlobDef →